Fundamentals of Web Application Architecture
22 July 2022
The Internet is no longer characterized by static web pages and lengthy loading times. Over time, the Internet has shifted toward active user participation and expanded functionality through the deployment of aesthetically appealing and powerful web apps.
Selecting the sort of web app architecture and the model for web app components is crucial before starting a web application development project. Making the proper decisions is crucial to a web app’s success.
In this article, we will go through web application architecture meaning, types, components, and models. But first and foremost, let us begin with the meaning of web application architecture.
What is Web Application Architecture?
The architecture of a web app is the design and construction of a website or web app. It includes everything from database design, programming logic, and user interface design to user experience. The design of a web app can be a very complicated process that often involves a large team of people. The goal of web app architecture is to create a functional and efficient design that will meet the needs of the business and users.
It’s a collection of decisions about how the application will be built, how it will be deployed, how users will interact with it, and how it will evolve.
How the Web App Architecture Work?
Web application architecture is the three-tier architecture, which consists of three layers: the presentation layer, the application layer, and the database layer.
Presentation Layer: This layer is responsible for rendering the user interface and presenting the data to the user. It typically includes the web server, web pages, and user interface components such as buttons, forms, and menus.
Application Layer: This layer is responsible for processing user requests and implementing the business logic of the application. It includes application servers, APIs, and middleware components that handle data processing and communication with the database layer.
Database Layer: This layer stores the application’s data and provides access to it. It includes a database server, which manages the data storage, and a data access layer, which handles communication with the application layer.
For example, consider an online shopping application that allows users to browse products, add them to a shopping cart, and make purchases. In this case, the presentation layer would include the web pages that display the product listings and the shopping cart, as well as the user interface components for adding products to the cart and checking out.
The application layer would handle user requests, process payments, and manage the inventory of products. It would include the server-side code that implements the business logic of the application, as well as APIs for communicating with the database layer.
The database layer would store information about the products, customers, and orders. It would include a database server that manages the data storage and a data access layer that handles communication with the application layer.
Types of Web Application Architecture
There are various types of web app architecture depending on how a web app is logically distributed between the server-side and client-side, including the following:
The single-page application (SPA) architecture
Single page application is a way to build web applications that have a similar feel to traditional applications that are built for desktop and mobile platforms. The primary difference between SPA and traditional web application architecture is that the former uses a single page to serve the majority of the content on the application. This enables the application to be faster and easier to browse, which improves the user experience.
The microservices architecture is an approach to building web apps that are designed to reduce complexity and improve scalability. The microservices architecture is composed of small units of code called services that work together to provide a single function or service. The services are independent of each other, making them easy to test, deploy, and manage.
Serverless architectures is one of the types of web app architecture, it provides the freedom to focus on building their platform rather than managing infrastructure. The biggest benefit of serverless architectures is the ability to scale applications on demand, without having to worry about the underlying infrastructure.
Legacy HTML web page
A server that consists of business logic and web page building logic communicates with the client across a whole web page based on a simple web app architecture. In order to see an update, the user must either completely reload the website or request an HTML page from the server using the client. The whole data and logic are saved on the server, which the user cannot access, making this sort of web app design extremely safe.
Widget web app
In this kind of web application architecture, web services take the place of the logic used to build web pages, and widgets are individual, discrete entities that are present on each client page. Widgets may receive and show bits of HTML or JSON data without refreshing the page by making AJAX requests to web services.
Components of Web Application Architecture
Following are the components of a web application architecture.
UI/UX Web Application Components
These are the components that users interact with to access and use the functionality of a web app. They include the web app’s UI/UX design, which is the way the app looks and feels to users; the app’s functionality, which is the set of features and functions the app provides; and the app’s business logic, which is the set of rules and algorithms that help the app perform its functions. User interface app components help users interact with the app, providing a way for users to navigate around the app, perform actions, and view information.
Read More: How to Improve User Experience on Website?
The functionality a user interacts with, the control, and the database storage are all considered structural components. It includes,
The web application server serves as the core hub for business logic and multi-layer applications written in Python, PHP, Java, .NET, Ruby, and Node.js.
The database server stores information that is accessed by the webserver to supply data or provide services to users.
Web Application Architecture Models
The model of a web application is determined by the total number of servers and databases utilized for the web application. It might be any of the three possibilities listed below.
One database, One Web Server
One web server is shared by all application services, each with a dedicated database. This architecture is ideal for applications that require low latency, isolation, and high availability across multiple data centers. The only downside is the increased operational complexity. This is where the Microservices architecture can help.
One Database, Multiple Web Servers
With this kind of web application component model, no data is kept on the webserver. The web server receives data from a client, processes it, and then inputs it into a database that is run independently of the server. The term “stateless architecture” is also occasionally used to describe this.
For this web application architecture model, at least two web servers are needed. All of this is done to prevent failure. The second web server will take over even if one shuts down.
Multiple Databases, Multiple Web Servers
The most effective model is this one. There are two possibilities available to users of the multi-server model: either they may store all of their data in the employed databases, or they can distribute it among these databases.
For the former instance, normally no more than 2 databases are needed, however for the latter case, some data may become inaccessible in the event of a database crash. However, both situations take advantage of database management system (DBMS) normalization.
Read More: Web App Development Trends
Features of Web Application Architecture
A web application architecture must be designed to handle an increasing number of users and requests over time. This includes being able to add more computing resources (such as additional servers) as needed, as well as being able to handle increasing amounts of data and traffic.
It should be modular, allowing individual components (such as databases, APIs, or front-end interfaces) to be developed, tested, and deployed independently. This allows teams to work more efficiently and reduces the risk of conflicts between components.
A web application architecture must be optimized for performance, ensuring that page’s load quickly and that users can access the application and its features smoothly. This includes considerations such as caching, data retrieval, and server-side processing.
It must ensure the security of user data and transactions, protecting against potential attacks and breaches. This includes implementing secure data storage, secure communication channels, and access controls to restrict who can access sensitive information.
It designed to facilitate maintenance and upgrades, ensuring that the application can be updated and improved over time without disrupting users. This includes having well-documented code and a clear structure for components and dependencies, as well as providing for seamless integration of new features and technologies.
The related technologies and best frameworks advance together with the web. The outdated legacy architecture and fundamental elements have been replaced with modern web app development.
Therefore, it is crucial to pick the appropriate web development architecture, as this will affect how well the web app runs. The web app’s speed, robustness, and security, as well as how responsive it is, are crucial factors that depend on the architecture chosen.
With what may be referred to as an intelligent blueprint, the proper web application architecture lays the way for future goals of extension and scalability.
Star knowledge as a web app development firm ensures that the necessary characteristics are kept in mind when designing the web app and that critical aspects are included in it. So, if you are intending to construct a web app and need assistance with its architecture, please do not hesitate to contact us.